Comprehensive, multiparametric MR Imaging of the brain on a patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
The examination was based on anatomical (T1-w, T2-w, FLAIR), functional (DWI, DCE & DSC Perfusion) and metabolic (MR Spectroscopy) sequences for a detailed assessment of the tumour.
Brain proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) is a mature methodology that is used clinically in many medical centers worldwide for the evaluation of brain tumours. There are two classes of spatial localization techniques for MR spectroscopy. Single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) techniques which record spectra from one region of the brain at a time, and multi-voxel techniques (Chemical Shift Imaging/CSI), which simultaneously record spectra from multiple regions and thereby map out the spatial distribution of metabolites within the brain.
Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MR Imaging measures T1 changes in tissues over time after the bolus administration of gadolinium.
Observing and quantifying the time course of contrast enhancement is the major goal of DCE imaging.
Tissue specific parameters can be estimated by pharmacokinetic modelling, including Ktrans, kep, plasma flow (Fp), plasma volume (Vp) and extravascular/extracellular volume (Ve).